Importance of ethics

Over the past few weeks, I have been studying media research. Throughout this time it has become apparent to me that research is surrounding our society. Individuals partake in everyday research such as picking a car or some shoes, or scientific research such as seeking the truth about media reporting. This week, I have been investigating ethics and why they are important in research. Being ethical is a trait that all researchers should practice as it will determine a positive reputation while minimising legal complications.



This photograph shown above was captured last week. It portrays a grieving doctor after he lost his 19-year-old patient. Frank Somerville, an American influential journalist, uploaded this picture onto his social media site Facebook. Somerville has a large fan base that follows him on social media; therefor he knew his post would receive large circulation.

(Penny 2013) brings forth the idea of people’s rights to privacy. She states that unlike fifty years ago it is not acceptable for researchers, individuals or photographers to take photos whenever and where ever they want. In my opinion, the photograph of the distraught surgeon addresses the issue of ethics and Penny’s (2013) statement. Although Frank Somerville states that he did not take the photo “NickMoore911 is an EMT and he posted it” (Somerville, 2015) he is supporting unethical behaviour. There is no information stating that the surgeon has given consent for his photograph to be taken and further uploaded onto social media sites for thousands to see.

Whilst reading thousands of comments praising the surgeon for his efforts I came across only a few who brought attention to the issue of ethics.

Screen Shot 2015-03-27 at 10.10.35 amScreen Shot 2015-03-27 at 10.12.44 amScreen Shot 2015-03-27 at 10.15.30 am Source:

(Penny 2013) also states the rights of participants in the photographs. She pronounces that there are three main issues of ethics; privacy, anonymity and dignity/harm (Penny, 2013, p 202). To be frank, this photograph of the surgeon does not comply with two of the three issues. The privacy of the surgeon was invaded as he did not decide whether or not he wanted his photo taken. His anonymity was revealed as you can see the back of his head, uniform and Somerville states which hospital the photo was taken. The only issue in his favour is his dignity as responders viewed and praised him as a hero. However, we are not told if his dignity at home or within his community was affected.

This photograph in my opinion is an example of how ethics can become neglected by researchers. Ethics should be addressed in all aspects of your work in order to keep your reputation positive and your legal complications minimised. (Penny, 2013) brought forth numerous ethical issues and how they should be addressed, in order to avoid legal complications. Ethical considerations need to be taken in all research as there are strict laws.
References: Tinkler, Penny 2013, ‘Ethical issues and legalities’, in Using photographs in social and historical research, SAGE, London, pp. 195-208


Media text ‘Bubba Yum Yum’ sucks!

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Two words, Peter Evans. When hearing this name, I hope you imagine two things – the first, television show My Kitchen Rules  (because it is awesome and he is one of the judges), and second, the devil. I refer to him as the devil because in short, he is about to publish an e-book called ‘Bubba Yum Yum’ promoting the Paleo diet upon babies.

The paleo diet is basically food presumed to be consumed by early humans, involving vegetables, fish and fruit and excluding dairy, and processed foods (Google definition, 2015).

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Originally Even’s hoped to publish his book on Australian shelves, however publishers recently dumped plans to release his book due to concerns his recipes were potentially harmful for babies. President of the Public Health Association of Australia has told Women’s Weekly, “In my view, there’s a very real possibility that a baby may die if this book goes ahead”.

Much controversy about this book is solely focused on infant’s dietary needs. Newborn babies require their Mother’s breast milk as it contains all the vitamins and nutrients babies need in their early stage of life. Along with this, breast milk is also packed with disease-fighting substances that protect babies from illness.

This evidence concludes that breastfeeding is essential to aid babies’ health and growth during their first six months. However, Pete Evan’s thinks differently. Although the paleo diet can be beneficial to adults – due to its elimination of unnecessary fats and processed foods, it can seriously harm infants as it promotes the removal of dairy

This article recalls Evan’s appearance at Melbourne Town Hall where he encouraged consumers to purchase his book. Reporter Liam Mannix speaks favourably of Even’s as he recollects Evan’s movements. Mannix proposes that Evan’s cooked his controversial bone broth – (the dish that supposably replaces breast milk) with naturopath, nutritionist and medical herbalist speaking benefits of the dish as he cooked. Although these people are professionals, they are not scientists. There opinions can be misinterpreted as scientific evidence to support Evan’s argument.

Mannix then goes on to explain, that Evan’s claims doctors agree with his ideology, however this vague reference fails to produce any kind of evidence.

This article fails to provide supporting investigation that Mannix should have researched before the article was published. Consumers who read this article who have no background information of the paleo diet are lead to believe that this diet is only beneficial. Although some people may interpret the diet like this, they should be exposed to the disadvantages, complications and risks.

Peter Evan’s is using his celebrity status to influence consumers to follow a diet that has no scientific evidence.

Mannix, L 2015, ‘Pete Evans appears at Melbourne Town Hall amid controversy of baby paleo cookbook’, The Age Victoria, 14th March,

Media Research


Hi there, it has been a long time since my last blog post so if I am a little rusty I apologise. My first semester of my 2nd year of University has just kicked off, and within the first week, actually first lecture, I was quickly reminded that blogging is a key component. This week, our exciting topic to blog about is media research.

Throughout my studies, I have become particularly conscious of the diverse forms of media and ways which it saturates society with information. Due to innovative technology, new forms of media allow people to be constantly connected all over the world. Although this can be perceived as beneficial for numerous reasons, it has created opportunity for corporations to misuse media. This brings forth the notion that media allows companies to advertise/promote their brand in a way that may be misleading.

For example, controversial television show ‘The Biggest Loser’ portrays a version of healthy. Or so we think. The Biggest Loser enforces that healthy eating and extreme exercise is the key to body transformations. Although this company promotes a healthy lifestyle, media research has proven their methods harmful. In order for this to be proven a series of steps had to be concluded.

Research is solely based on searching to find answers. In this case, researchers investigated the trainer’s methods on screen, communicated with participants and observed techniques during and after the show. Once data is gathered, the theory and hypothesis is formulated followed by data analysis and lastly conclusion.

Media research allowed investigators to conclude, “Contestants have the desire to change, the show, unfortunately doesn’t provide an opportunity to develop sustainable strategies” (Meade, 2013). It was also proven that contestants were merely focused on weight loss, not fat loss. Due to this, participants did not have correct balance in their life style, consequently causing them to fall back into old habits after returning home from the show.

‘The Biggest Loser’ in my understanding, is a prime example of media research. Media allows corporation’s to present their brand to the public in a particular positive way. Media research allows external individual’s to observe, gather information/data, hypothesise and conclude whether the material presented is correct (in ‘The Biggest Loser’s case, it was not).

‘The Biggest Loser’ was an interesting example to research. I was familiar with the show, as I have watched previous seasons. I had heard people negatively talk about the show, and how it is more harmful then beneficial for participants, yet I had never researched it before. I believe that it would be interesting to research this aspect of media again as I am often lured into brand advertisements, however hardly conduct further media research to see if that the corporation is complying to their word.

Media uncertainty on global issues

We are constantly faced with media coverage on global disasters. Each day/week/month, media forums such as newspapers, television and radio report on national and international news. As well as reporting on these issues, forums such as twitter contain constant live coverage of global crisis’ alike ISIS. Although constant coverage of ISIS is beneficial in sustaining social awareness of the issue, it brings attention away from other global issues that are also trending.

Global warming is an issue that is often neglected of media coverage. While it is important that society is knowledgeable on the topic of ISIS, they should also be aware about the uprising issues of global warming, a topic that is of greater threat to us then terror. Global warming and climate change is an issue that affects every living human, however has little coverage in the media. This creates a major global issue for society as it limits our understanding on the importance of climate change. (Ward, 2014) brings forth the idea of ‘balance’ in reporting on news. It is said “journalists increasingly, and rightly take their cues from the leading and acknowledged scientific experts when it comes to the facts and causes of global climate change” (Ward, B 2014, p 14). Although this can be perceived as a reliable source, it also creates concern of lagging information on global warming until it is actually occurring.

Screen Shot 2014-10-14 at 2.27.44 PMUnequal mediated global coverage has made it difficult for society to argue which global crisis needs attaining. If the concept of global warming were more regularly mediated then it would require society to ‘think global and act global cooperatively’.

Ward, B. (2009). Journalism ethics and climate change reporting in a period of intense media uncertainty. Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics, [online] 9, pp.13-15[Accessed 14 Oct. 2014]<>

Equalising Mediation of Global Affairs

Media forums such as television, news, radio and online political blogging deliver global news to society every day. These issues are mediated in a particular way to shape individual’s opinion and understanding of global crisis. Although the media is successful in delivering of information, it also brings forth the concern of imbalanced media coverage towards various global affairs.

Take the media coverage of the Syrian crisis in contrast to the coverage of asylum seekers in Australia for example. Australia has constant access to mediated coverage of the war in Syria, however less then half the coverage on asylum seekers migrating to Australia, an issue that is of greater concern to our economy.

The concern for asylum seekers in Australia is an issue effecting a major proportion of our society, yet it receives either; incorrect media coverage or hardly no coverage at all.  This issue links to Write’s (2012) theory ‘Re-apprasial of new priorities’. Write (2012) depicts how it wasn’t until 2011 when American media forums increased foreign affair coverage. “143 minutes was focused on the uprising in Syria, whereas only 42 minutes was dedicated to the Arab Awakening” (Write 2012). This upraises concern that society will be less informed about additional global affairs. If the issue of asylum seekers in Australia was regularly mediated individual’s could actively contribute to the affair in order to aid our economy.

Screen Shot 2014-10-09 at 11.58.02 AMUnequal mediated global coverage has made it difficult for society to argue which global crisis needs attaining. The Syrian crisis is displayed on all forms of media and even withholds its own hashtag (#SYRIA). Furthermore, making it difficult for additional global affairs with equal importance such as asylum seekers in Australia to hold attention. 

Lee-Wright, P. 2012, ‘News Values: An Assessment of New Priorities Through a Comparative Analysis of Arab Spring Anniversary Coverage’, in Journalism, Media and Cultural Studies Journal, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1-20

‘No shit Sherlock’

Screen Shot 2014-10-08 at 10.01.49 AMPrior to this weeks lecture my only understanding of Sherlock Holmes came from the well-known saying ‘no shit Sherlock’ (used when someone would uncover something quite obvious). This saying was based on the television series ‘Sherlock Holmes’, whose protagonist uncovered fiction crime scenes. Sherlock Holmes is a popular television series that has been globally adapted numerous times in order to aid cultural desire.

British and American culture both modified the television series to allow for a successful cultural understanding. I previously touched on cultural consideration in last weeks blog. I stated that in order for an effective positive viewership response, cultural consideration must be adjusted. In British culture, Sherlock allows us to see what modern fan fiction would look like if it was written by well-paid, well respect middle age man (Penny, 2014). The English version shows no distinct ‘romantic’ relationship between Sherlock and Watson however continually brings forth the idea of possible homoeroticism between the two.

Yet in contrast, in the American version ‘Elementary’ the producers made Irene Adler and Moriarty form into one person, furthermore making Holme’s greatest opponent a woman, who ironically was Sherlocks former lover. ‘Elementary’ constructed a relationship between Holme’s and Moriarity “falling into the boundaries of a heteronormative couple” (Asher-Perrin, 2014). ‘Elementary’ also altered Sherlock’s independent nature towards crime solving by getting him to recruit Watson as his apprentice as he considers Watson’s opinion and skill valuable.

Although there are some distinct differences between ‘Sherlock’ and ‘Elementary’ like the fact that Joan Watson is played by a woman of colour in ‘Elementary’, and that people of different races, sexualities and social classes (Asher-Perrin, 2014) is greatly evident. The writers and producers of ‘Elementary’ fought to preserve similar characteristics displayed in the characters in the British version ‘Sherlock’.

The British and American version of this television has been adapted in order to aid cultural norms. The British version of Sherlock Holmes successfully captures the culture of England through the use of incorporating appropriate english comedy and teasing of homoeroticism behaviour. Where as the American version ‘Elementary’ displays regular love and relationships scenes along side crime solving. Both series successfully incorporated cultural changes to appeal to desired audience.

Penny, L (2014) ‘Sherlock and the Adventure of the Overzealous Fanbase’ New Statesman, viewed 28th September 2014,

Asher-Perrin, E (2014) ‘Battling Super Sleuths: The Awkward Case of Elementary, Sherlock, and Building the Better Adaptation’, viewed September 28th 2014,

Look at MOI

Humour may only be considered humour if our culture allows us to understand and accept what is being heard. Culture plays an immense role in determining what individuals find funny, amusing, or disturbing. ‘Humour, and thus comedy formats, most drama, relying as it does on some unavoidable specifies of character and place, and of course the vast bulk of news and current affairs, remain resistant to exploitation in a multiplicity of markets’ (Cunningham and Jacka 1996: 249). In other words, comedy & humour can not be globally identical. Cultural consideration must be achieved in order for a positive viewership response.

So lets take a little look at how some comedy and humour television shows have negatively abused cultural consideration. Kath and Kim is a prime example (and probably the one being most used….sorry to bring it up again!). Kath and Kim is a highly successful Australian television show which exemplifies the ‘bogan’ lifestyle of an Australian Mother and Daughter. Kath and Kim’s catch fraise’s; “It’s unuZual”, “It’s different”, and “Look at Moiii” had Australian’s hooked and in stitches laughing. Why? Because it captured Australian cultural successfully.

Kath and Kim was so successful in Australia that America thought they could remake the television series to provide comedy for their culture. However, it backfired. Badly. The show was received badly by American’s and was cancelled after just the first season. (2010) proclaim that three of America’s most influential newspapers slammed the show in reviews, with one stating “Like the yeast-extract spread and its offspring, the Vegemite sandwich and the Cheesymite scroll, (it) is just not something that suits the American palette. While the characters in the Aussie version are squirm-worthy, they are still likeable. In the American version, they are merely detestable.”

The reason the American version failed to provide comedy and humour is merely because cultural consideration was not addressed. “The successful translation of a comedy depends not only on the translation of the cultural context from one locale to another (Scranton for Slough, Florida for Fountain Lakes, (but also on the kinds of production deals which are made and the expectations about audiences which are then inferred (Turnbull,2008).

There are in many cases where local television can be successful in becoming a global sensation, however cultural consideration must first be addressed and achieved.

Turnbull, S (2004) ‘Look at Moiye, Kimmie, look at moiye’: Kath and Kim and the Australian comedy of taste’. Media International Australia incorporating Culture and Policy, no. 113, pp. 98 – 109

Clash or rise of civilisation?

I have always believed that the global cultural flow of media came from Hollywood. Growing up I was confronted with Hollywood movies, Hollywood pop songs and Hollywood magazines. These further became my fundamental income of media. However, it was not only until this weeks topic ‘Media Capitals’ where I discovered just how many media scapes are positioned around the world essentially portraying large dominate media coverage of cultural flow. Media capitals are places where things come together and, consequently, where the generation and circulation of new mass culture forms become possible” (Curtin, 2003).

One major example of a central media capital is HongKong. HongKong became a central media capital after World War 2 due to the influx of migration. Due to this, society was forced to make a living in HongKong by “finding work, starting businesses and creating families” (Curtin, 2003) moreover, turning HongKong into a economic stable nation. Due to this, HongKong as a media capital emerged with the Chinese Opera being one of the most popular forms of entertainment. 

Along with the Chinese Opera, HongKong have incorporated a hybrid of WesternPop, and other international influences of music entertainment. “While the original songs often featured traditional Chinese instruments, these have, mostly been phased out and nowadays Cantopop is more like a wholesome version of Western Pop sung in the Cantonese language” (Boland). Although Cantopop originated in HongKong, they now make world tours to places including L.A, New York, London, San Fran and Vancouver (Boland). 

Media Capitals alike HongKong contribute greatly to our global economy. However, Huntington perceives media capitals to lead to the ‘Clash of Civilisation’. “The great divisions among humankind and the dominating source of conflict will be cultural”(Huntington, 1993). Depicting his perception that the East and Westernised culture can not subvert due to cultural difference and perception. 

I believe media capitals alike HongKong will not cause the ‘clash of civilisation’. Although Huntington studies a relevant hypothesis I choose to believe that media capitals will increase globalisation rather then destroy it.


Curtin, M. 2003, ‘Media capital’, International Journal of Cultural Studies, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 202-228

Boland R, ‘About Travel’, ‘Cantopop – What is Cantopop?’ viewed 9th September 2014

Huntington, S. 1996, Clash of Civilisations, Simon and Schuster, New York








Cross over & Transnational Cinema

Cross over Cinema and Transnational Cinema share a similar relationship. Cross over cinema is solely based on crossing cultural boards during conceptualisation and production, whereas transnational cinema focus further on challenging audience to critically think about films with a national brand, further influencing pre conceived ideologies based on the cultural content displayed in the films (Khorana, 2013, p. 2).Both of these elements, although they are very similar, play a distinct role in the production of cross-cultural films. 

When researching cross over cinema I was surprised by how many movies incorporate multi ethnic backgrounds. One finding, The Grudge is based on the Japanese horror movie called Ju-on. Hollywood recreated the movie for the Westernised culture, even hiring the same director from the original in order to integrate a similar cultural experience. Both  movies were exactly an hour and a half long so that The Grudge could fit in as much description as the original. One of the central cultural differences in these two movies was that Ju-on’s main character was in about half of the movie scenes where as in the Grudge the main character is in almost every scene. As well as this, the Hollywood version incorporated the desire of love, where as Ju-on does not. This is merely due to the Westernized culture’s appeal towards love compared to the Japanese who share little interest in films concentrated around love.

Snow White and the Huntsman is another example of an Hollywood movie grounded on a 1994 Japanese anime series called Shirayuki Hime no Densetsu. Snow White and the Huntman heavily mirror the Japanese anime series through the influence of their colours and designs.

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In Khorana’s reading she depicts the motion of ‘belonging’ in relation to cross over cinema. Individuals whom come from multi ethnic backgrounds form a sense of belonging to these movies as they are characterised by multi cultural influences (Khorana, 2013, p.9).


Khorana, S. 2013, “Crossover cinema: a conceptual and genealogical overview”,  Research Online,pp. 1-18.

Melvile, Ju-On vs. The Grudge — The Battle of the Pacific’, Earth-2.Net Geek Culture at its Finest, Viewed 02 September 2014, <;

Sensei 2010, ‘The Advantages of Being an Alice in Anime, Manga, and Video Games’, Hibari-Sensei’s Classroom, Viewed 02 September 2014, <;




I nek nominate Bollywood!

From twerking, to saying the word ‘Yolo’  then to forcing all Facebook friends to ‘nek nominate’ I’d thought we had seen it all. But I was wrong. The next big thing heading our way is ‘Bollywood’! “New millennium Indian and Chinese films will wrestle control of global films from western dominance” (Schaefer 2012, p309). These Bollywood films are combining the link between local and global culture and appealing them to audience’s tastes and trends to provide rich entertainment. 

These films are the new and uprising threat to traditional Hollywood films, “Bose predicted that Indian films stood ‘the best chance of challenging Hollywood’s hegemony in the movie making world'” (2006:195). One example that I’m sure all you fellow bloggers are mentioning is ‘Avatar’. It’s seriously just too mind boggling not to mention! Avatar has made an estimated $1.8437 billion since released (Bettinger, 2010). Avatar combined both mixed American themes with ancient Hindu concepts. One main central concept introduced from Indian mythogy into the American film was ‘the blue skin colour of the Na’vi characters, the colour traditionally used for depicting the religious avatars Rama Krishna (Jain, 2005). 

Following Bollywood is another new revolution called ‘Nollywood’ also known as the African cinema. Nollywood has arose from the African country of Nigeria with its sole purpose to “produce culture from the bottom of the street” (Okomo 2007, p2). Nollywood’s soul purpose was to bring the poorer African communities together in street sites and provide entertainment for a small donation. These films are budgeted much lower then Hollywood (around $1500) and are produced in a shorter time (sometimes no more then 10 days) (Corrigan, 2006). From the year 2000 Nollywood has began to venture out into the big wide world by attending one international film festival to the other. Nowadays Nollywood has become the second largest film industry in the world in number of annual film productions (Wikipedia, 2014). 

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Subverting Bollywood and Nollywood into Hollywood are in my opinion a blessing to greet our western culture. Although these two revolutions are apposing threat to traditional Hollywood films it also provides increased knowledge and awareness of cultures that are unfamiliar.


Schaefer, D 2010, ‘Problematizing Chindia: Hybridity and Bollywoodization of popular Indian cinema in global film flows’, ‘Global Media and Communication’, Los Angeles, pp. 309-316

Bose, D. (2006) Brand Bollywood: A New Global Entertainment Order. New Delhi: Sage.

Okome, O 2007, ‘Nollywood: Spectatorship, Audience and the Sites of Consumption’, pp. 1-20

Bettinger 2010, AVATAR Achieves The Highest Worldwide Gross of All Time with $1.84 Billion, COLLIDER, viewed 25th August 2014, <;

Corrigan 2006, About Nollywood,, viewed 25th August 2014, <> 

Wikipedia 2014, last updated 22nd August 2014,Cinema of Nigeria, viewed 25th August 2014, <;